Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Methods Of Recovering Energy From Waste An Environmental Sciences Essay Example

Methods Of Recovering Energy From Waste An Environmental Sciences Essay Example Methods Of Recovering Energy From Waste An Environmental Sciences Essay Methods Of Recovering Energy From Waste An Environmental Sciences Essay Biomass ( waste ) energy is progressively pulling attending worldwide because it is a renewable beginning of energy and potentially CO2 impersonal. At present, most waste stuffs are converted into electricity frequently by burning. Waste burning is widely applied for territory warming and combined heat and power for electricity coevals. This study describes waste, waste decrease and intervention ordinances in Europe every bit good as different types of waste generated, an overview of waste to energy engineerings applied throughout the universe today. Energy from waste has been evaluated based on their ability to cut down the emanation of pollutant into the ambiance. In order to extenuate clime alteration which is deriving increasing consciousness, recent developments of different engineerings that have been able to treat waste to bring forth heat and power with high efficiencies can be considered to be the most feasible option to replace fossil fuels. 2 Introduction Due to the lifting cost and the ecological disadvantages of fossil fuels, there as been concerns about the hereafter of energy supply in the universe. Harmonizing to the World Energy Council, dodo fuel covers about 82 % of the universe s energy. And this has caused terrible amendss for the environment in footings of nursery emanations, sea degree rise, air pollution, etc. Furthermore, as the World continues to see globalisation, rapid industrialisation and technological promotion, it will surely acquire to a point, where supply of these fossil fuels will non run into demand. Therefore, it is imperative to happen an alternate beginning of energy ( Soetaert and Vandamme, 2006 ) . Research and development of renewable beginnings of energy and energy from biomass is expected to be of huge benefit to the society as it reduces the concentration of C dioxide in the ambiance and it is non exhaustible. Biomass is a major beginning of biologically derived bio fuels ( bio-ethanol ) and biogas. This is well going a world in energy/electricity coevals. Biomass can be burnt straight to bring forth heat or electricity, or it can be converted into solid, liquid or gaseous fuel through agitation procedure into intoxicant and anaerobiotic digestion into biogas. There are many environmental and societal benefits associated with biomass energy. These include decrease in CO2 degrees, energy bearers to rural communities, waste control, etc. ( Calbe, Bajay, Rothman and Harry, 2000 ) . Biomass natural stuffs for energy coevals includes the first coevals feedstocks i.e. energy harvests ( maize, sugar cane, wheat, etc ) and the 2nd coevals feedstock chiefly lignocellulosic stuffs ( wood and agricultural residues ) . Hence, utilizing biomass as a replacement for fossil fuels is sustainable and good. However, there have been contentions on the usage of human nutrient ( energy harvest ) for energy coevals particularly in developing states where there is deficit of nutrient. Hoffert et Al. ( 2002 ) , Dismiss the usage of biomass for energy, others take the opposite position ( Dewulf and Langenhove 2006 ) . To this consequence, energy recovery from waste can be an economical feasible option. 3 Wastes 3.1 Definition Waste arises as a consequence of human technological development and societal activities. The Uk s Environmental Protection Act 1990 indicated waste includes any substance which constitutes a scrap stuff, an wastewater or other unwanted excess originating from the application of any procedure or any substance or article which requires to be disposed of which as been broken, worn out, contaminated or otherwise spoiled, this is supplemented with anything which is discarded otherwise dealt with as if it were waste shall be presumed to be waste unless the reverse is proved. Murphy et Al. ( 2002 ) defined waste as a stuff with no farther beneficial usage. The figure below shows the Conventional illustration of the EU Legal definition of waste 3.2 EU WASTE FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE The Directive requires all Member States to take the necessary steps to guarantee that waste is recovered or disposed of without jeopardizing human wellness or doing injury to the environment and includes permitting, enrollment and review demands. The Directive besides requires Member States to take appropriate steps to promote foremost, the bar or decrease of waste production and its injuriousness and secondly the recovery of waste by agencies of recycling, re-use or renewal or any other procedure with a position to pull outing secondary natural stuffs, or the usage of waste as a beginning of energy ( Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, 2009 ) . 3.3 UK WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICY The UK Waste Policy is developed from the thought of sustainable development. This policy promote recreation from landfills by enforcing high revenue enhancement levies on landfill site, cut down the sum of waste produced by the commercial sector, and finally promote re-use and recycling of stuffs. 3.4 WASTE HIERARCHY Figure 3.1 Waste hierarchy 3.5 TYPES OF WASTE Municipal Solid Waste Hazardous/Radioactive Waste Sewage Sludge Medical/Clinical Waste Agricultural Waste Industrial and Commercial Waste Other Waste e.g. building and destruction industry waste, mines and quarry waste and power station ash, Fe and steel scorias ( Williams, 1999 ) . There are besides two different sorts of component fraction in a waste watercourse ; The Organic fraction i.e. Biodegradable and the Inorganic fraction. 3.5.1Municipal Solid Waste This is composed of/includes chiefly household waste, with commercial and trade waste which is collected or disposed of by a municipality within an country. The composing of MSW watercourse varies, depending upon socio-economic factors, geographical locations, clime, population denseness and degree of industrialisation etc. for illustration in US and other industrialised states where value is placed on clip, consumers have adapted to the outlook of utilizing disposable at all times, thereby driving packaging and wrapping engineerings to a new degree, in add-on with the decayable waste from nutrient materials. The energy fraction contained in stuffs of this type of waste watercourse can be between 75 to 90 % . Whereas in less developed states where the waste watercourse is composed dominantly of decayable fraction i.e. groceries, veggie and organic stuffs with infinitesimal packaging stuffs, the energy content will be much lower ( Murphy, 2002 ) . Topographic point Sum OF MSW Kumasi, Ghana 365000 metric tons in 2006 China 180 million metric tons expected for 2010 United kingdom 34 million metric tons in 2007/2008 USA 190 million metric tons in 2009 Australia 43.8 million metric tons in 2006/2007 Ontario 267000 metric tons in 2007 Table 3.1 Average sum of MSW generated in different portion of the universe Data from Thermal Processing of Waste, J C Jones 2010 Fig 3.2 Municipal solid waste disposal tracts in US Data from US EIA 2010 3.5.2 Hazardous Waste Hazardous Waste is waste which contains substances that are considered to be unsafe to wellness and society. This includes substances which are reactive, infective, harmful, toxic and caustic etc. illustrations are chemicals such as, H nitrile, sulfuric acid, hydrofluoric acid etc. explosives such as dynamite, ammo etc. H2O reactive chemicals such as K, phosphoric, sodium hydride etc. In USA, estimate arisings of jeopardy waste is 275 million metric tons, UK 4.5 million metric tons, Germany 6 million metric tons, Spain 1.7 million metric tons ( Williams, 1999 ) . 3.5.3 SEWAGE SLUDGE Sewage Sludge is normally generated at the waste H2O intervention installation. It is a byproduct of the intervention of natural sewerage from domestic families, which may besides include commercial and industrial waste. The sewerage is composed chiefly of H2O, but after intervention, the wet stuff is concentrated to organize sewerage sludge ( Williams, 1999 ) . They are solid, semi-solid or bio solid in nature. Harper-Collins Dictionary of Environmental Science defines Sewage Sludge as a semi-solid mixture of bacteriums, virus-laden organic affair, toxic metals, man-made organic chemicals, and settled solids removed from domestic and industrial waste at sewerage intervention workss. ( Renewable Energy Institute ) The sewerage sludge intervention undergoes both aerophilic and anaerobiotic digestion and the concluding treated sewerage sludge is either land filled, spread on land as fertilisers or incinerated. Recent developments have shown that biogas can be produced during anaerobi otic digestion. 3.5.4 CLINICAL WASTE Clinical Waste is chiefly produced/waste originating from wellness Centres, infirmaries and nursing places etc. Examples include drugs, panpipes, acerate leafs, blood, human or carnal tissue etc. Approximately 0.3 1000000s metric tons of clinical waste arises in the UK yearly. Majority of clinical waste are incinerated ( Williams, 1999 ) . 3.5.5 AGRICULTURAL WASTE Agricultural waste is godforsaken watercourses by and large produced from agricultural activities. They are produced within agricultural premises and they include organic stuffs such as slurry, manure from farm animal, silage wastewater and harvest residues. It is estimated that about 700 million metric tons of agricultural waste is produced in OECD states. UK besides produces big tunnage, 80 million metric tons estimated from housed farm animal entirely ( Williams 1999 ) . 3.5.6 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL WASTE These are types of waste watercourse that arises from both industrial and commercial sectors such as hotels and catering, nutrient, drink and baccy fabrication industries, metal fabrication industries, lumber and wooden furniture industries, mechanical and electrical industries, conveyance and communicating industries etc. The typical composing of this waste streams differs and really broad. A study carried out by Environmental Agency of some 4,500 commercial and industrial concerns in England in 2002/2003 showed that commercial waste amounted to 30 million metric tons and industrial waste 38 million metric tons ( meitnerium ) . In that study, the chief sectors bring forthing C A ; I wastes were retail ( 12.7mt ) , nutrient, drink and baccy ( 7.2mt ) , professional services and other ( 7.1mt ) , public-service corporations ( 6.2mt ) , the chemicals industries ( including fiber, gum elastic and plastics ) ( 5.3mt ) , basic metal industry ( 4.8mt ) and hotels/catering ( 3.4mt ) ( Defra, commercial and industrial waste in England, 2009 ) . 4 ENERGY RECOVERIES FROM WASTE TECHNOLOGIES Energy is recovered from waste either through thermic burning or biological/chemical reactions. The energy recovery procedure produces electricity straight through burning, or produces man-made and combustible fuel i.e. methane. 4.1 Incineration Incineration with energy recovery is the controlled burning of waste and it is the most broad spread waste to energy execution. It involves the burning of waste watercourses at high temperatures and the heat produced can be used to drive a turbine in order to bring forth electricity and territory warming. Waste stuffs or fuel are fed into incinerators in two ways, the mass fired/burning systems and decline derived fuel ( RDF ) fired systems. The mass firing involves minimum processing ; the full assorted municipal solid waste is fed into a furnace without any removal/separation of reclaimable and non combustible stuffs. For RDF fired engineerings, MSW undergoes pre-treatment, separation of non-combustible and reclaimable stuff which is known as RDF. RDF fired systems has a higher energy content compared to unrefined MSW because of its homogeneousness ( Tchobanoglous, Thiesen and Vigil, 1993 ) . There are assorted types of incinerator works design: moving grating, fixed grating, rotary-kiln, and fluidized bed incinerator. 4.1.1 Traveling Grate This can besides be called Municipal Solid Waste incinerators. The traveling grating enables the motion of waste by a waste Crane at one terminal of the grating through the burning chamber to the ash cavity at the lower terminal. The burning air is supplied through the grating prevarication below. Cooling of the grating itself is indispensable for the mechanical strength of the grating. One individual traveling grate boiler can manage 35 metric metric tons of waste per hr, and 8,000 hours per twelvemonth. 4.1.2 Fixed Grate This is a simpler type of incinerator. It is made of a brick lined compartment with a fixed metal grating above the lower ash cavity, with one gap for burden and another gap in the side for taking noncombustible solids known as cinders. 4.1.3 Rotary kiln It is largely used by municipalities and big industrial workss. Rotary kiln incinerators have 2 Chamberss, primary and secondary chamber. In the primary chamber, motion and transition of solid fraction of the waste to gases and partial burning occurs while the secondary chamber completes the gas stage burning reactions. 4.1.4 Fluidized Bed Fluidized Bed Combustion ( FBC ) is a burning engineering used in power workss. FBC developed from attempts to happen a burning procedure that is able to command pollutant emanations. Advanced fluidized bed burning offers a feasible power coevals technique. In fluidized bed burning, a strong air flow is forced through a sand bed, which keeps the waste suspended on wired air currents and takes on fluid like character. Due to the turbulent commixture, the waste and sand are to the full circulated through the furnace. 4.2 BALDOVIE WASTE TO ENERGY PLANT The Baldovie waste to energy works is a province of the art installation commissioned in Dundee in 1999, to replace a waste disposal incinerator due to its inability to run into EU demands on emanations. The works is run by a joint venture between Dundee metropolis council and private sector spouses. The joint venture is jointly called Dundee energy recycling limited ( DERL ) . The works processes 120,000 metric tons of waste yearly and generates electricity to run into its ain demand ( about 2.2MW ) and besides supply to the populace ( about 8.8MW ) . Separation techniques carried out before burning removes and recovers ferric metals which can be resold ( Gazetteer for Scotland, 2010 ) . 4.3 LANDFILL GAS CAPTURE Landfill is a waste disposal site where waste is deposited onto or into the land. When waste is deposited, it undergoes assorted debasement procedure which produces gas chiefly methane. Modern landfills have gas recovery systems, where the landfill gas is extracted and can be used for production of steam, heat and electricity ( Dewulf and Langenhove 2006, p.248 ) 4.4 ANAEROBIC DIGESTION Anaerobic intervention engineerings are used throughout the universe for effectual intervention of organic waste. This engineering is peculiarly attractive because the energy required for runing the procedure is minimum compared to energy required for aerophilic procedure. Anaerobic digestion is a complex biogenic procedure which involves the microbic debasement or transition of organic waste in a closed reactor vas ( absence of air ) to bring forth gas chiefly methane ( 55-65 % ) , CO2 ( 35-45 % ) , and hint sums of N2, H2 and H2S, depending on factors such as the composing of waste, organic burdens applied to the digester, clip and temperature. The methane-rich biogas which can be combusted to bring forth heat and electricity In general anaerobiotic digestion is considered to happen in three phases: A ] Liquefaction or polymer dislocation ; B ] Acid formation ; and C } Methane formation Substrates for anaerobiotic digestion includes waste H2O from nutrient processing, breweries, distilleries etc. sewerage sludge, carnal waste, farm residues. 4.5 GASIFICATION AND PYROLYSIS Gasification is defined as a partial oxidation/combustion of biomass and assorted combustible waste/carbonaceous fuels to bring forth gas. This gas can be used in internal burning engines and gas turbines to bring forth electric power. Pyrolysis is a thermic procedure which involves the dislocation of organic stuffs in waste under force per unit area in the absence of O. The pyrolysis procedure produces a liquid residue and gas which can be combusted to bring forth electricity. The chief difference between the two systems is that, pyrolysis system use an external beginning of heat to drive the endothermal pyrolysis reaction in an O free environment, whereas gasification systems are self-sustainable and utilize air or O for partial burning of solid province ( Tchobanoglous, Thiesen and vigil 1993 ) . 5 Decision Energy from waste has been evaluated based on their ability to cut down the emanation of pollutant into the ambiance, minimise waste, and generate heat and power. With the recent development of different engineerings that have been able to treat waste to bring forth energy with high efficiencies, waste to energy engineerings can be considered to be feasible substitute/option for fossil fuels for electricity coevals and besides in minimizing of waste accretion.

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Business Information Systems (tesco's data processing and networks) Essay

Business Information Systems (tesco's data processing and networks) - Essay Example Tesco’s information systems can be studied from different angles. We shall focus on studying them from the functionality aspect. Let us analyze one of the critical components of Tesco’s Information Systems, the Supply Chain Management System. Tesco is well known for its best practices in Supply Chain Management, which includes â€Å"lean management† and using RFID technology. The key strategy behind maintaining advantage over its competitors has been innovation in the supply chain. Tesco has aimed to innovate at each point of its supply chain. This includes point of sales management, continuous replenishment system, cross dock distribution centers and use of a single vehicle to distribute to several stores (ICMR n.d.). The Continuous replenishment system is a key component in Tesco’s Supply Chain system. The application monitors and controls the inventory in real time at all stores. This provides with real time data to analyze and take important decisions. This modernized application is of unique type and has been deployed in all of Tesco’s data centers across the world. Having a common operating model across all centers around the world, Tesco saves a lot of cost in deployment and maintenance of systems. A company called Micro Focus modernized and extended Tesco’s Continuous Replenishment (CR) application to operate on the latest IBM System p servers and AIX Unix (Computing 2007). MIS system at Tesco is another component of the overall information system of Tesco. After achieving massive growth and expansion, Tesco came up with the idea of developing a single Management Information System (MIS) to fulfill both local and global data reporting requirements. The aim of the MIS is to spread out the key practices and performance indicators at all locations and provide business insight at each store irrespective of the size or maturity of

Friday, February 7, 2020

Environmental Law Problem Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 6500 words

Environmental Law Problem - Research Paper Example On the first question raised by the plaintiffs, whether navigable waters of the United States include only naturally occurring bodies of water, so that man made improvements to rivers are not considered navigable water, this court denies certiorari, therefore the opinion of the ninth circuit court of appeals, rendered on October 11, 2011, stands. Facts of the Case The County of Los Angeles (hereinafter â€Å"The District†) operates a series of MS4s. An explanation of MS4s is as follows. The cities that comprise the County of Los Angeles all operate a series of storm drains which catches the runoff from rainwater. This is distinguishable from a drain which catches sewer water for treatment at a sewage treatment plant. In this case, what is captured is untreated storm water. That said, this untreated stormwater typically also has a variety of pollutants, such as heavy metals, bacteria, and the like. Also, trash also gets washed into these MS4s. Moreover, the individual MS4s are interconnected. This is because all the municipalities in the Los Angeles County system are able to connect to a centralized system run by the District, which is their flood control and storm-sewer infrastructure. This is comprised of some 2,800 miles of storm drains and some 500 miles of open channels. This stormwater is collected and is channeled into various waterways, including the waterways which are the subject of this litigation – the Los Angeles River, the Santa Clara River, the San Gabriel River and the Malibu Creek. The river waters, in turn, channel into the Pacific Ocean by way of the Santa Monica Bay, the Los Angeles Harbor and the Long Beach Harbor. Statement of the Case The procedural history for this case is as follows. In December 2001, the California Regional Water Quality Control Board for the region of Los Angeles, issued a NPDES Permit to 84 cities, in an effort to regulate stormwater and urban runoff discharges. This permit recognized that there could be extraneous sources for the pollutants in waters, and that these extraneous sources would be sources over which the Permittees had no jurisdiction. Each of the permittees were responsible only for its own discharge. The Permit also had monitoring and reporting programs. On March 3, 2008, the respondents, Natural Resources Defense Council and Santa Monica Baykeeper filed a complaint against the City of Los Angeles and others, on the basis that the water quality standards has exceedances of pollutants, which would constitute a violation of the Permit standards. Part of the Respondents argument was that the District was responsible for pollutant exceedances because the monitoring stations were within the channelized portions of the rivers operated by the District as a part of its flood control system, therefore the District was responsible for any exceedances measured there. This argument was rejected by the District Court, who stated that, due to the decision in South Florida Water Ma nagement District v. Miccosukee Tribe of Indians, 541 U.S. 95, 105 (2004), that a discharge does not result from moving waters from one portion of a body of water to another. The District Court went on to state that, because of the decision rendered in South Florida, a discharge can only be from a point source. Since the District was not discharging pollutants from a point sourc

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Racial Ethnic And Religious Profiling in the U.S. Essay Example for Free

Racial Ethnic And Religious Profiling in the U.S. Essay In the United States, ‘The land of the Free’, racial profiling of minority groups seems all too common. Many Americans believe that law enforcement as well as many other people often discriminates on minority groups simply because of their color of their skin. Civil rights activist and many leaders of minority groups are pressuring Enforcement agencies to eliminate racial and ethnic profiling during traffic stops and supposed random pedestrian stops. However, many law enforcement representatives claim that the complaints about these activities are overstated and are simply in the heads of the accusers. As a nation with a history of racial slavery and racial segregation, particularly towards any group that is not Anglo-American or fair skinned, African-Americans have long complained of racial profiling. Although racial slavery has been over for over one hundred years, and segregation that ended over fifty years ago, there is still tension between many people over race. Hispanics and Muslims are two other ethnic groups that feel the racial profiling, often being suspected of being terrorists or being illegal immigrants. Racial profiling is not a new subject in America. Racial profiling dates back to the colonial days in America. The revolutionary era there was religious profiling of Quakers because they were seen as being unfaithful to the revolution. African Americans have been racially profiled since the days of Slavery. Mexicans and Latinos have been scrutinized and called out by law enforcement since around the time Texas gained its independence. 19th century immigration laws created ethnic and racial profiling against Asians and southern and eastern Europeans. In August of 1777 the Continental Congress ordered the arrests of multiple Quakers that were supposedly disloyal to the Revolution. The Continental Congress had no evidence, and there were no trials. Many of the prisoners were exiled to a Virginia jail. The captives were released from the imprisonment because of pleas from their families and from a few political leaders. During the Pre-Civil War era African-Americans made up about one sixth of the country’s population. The majority of those African-Americans were slaves, with the majority of them slaves in the South. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 had only a few things that protected actual free African-Americans. Slave hunters could legally capture the slaves that were able to escape. Free African-Americans had almost no immunity from being captured and treated as if they were runaway slaves. The new movie â€Å"12 Years a Slave† that recently came out in theatres shows how a free black man could be captured and sold into slavery without being able to prove their freedom, because of profiling any African-American as a slave. The end of slavery did not end the profiling of African-Americans. The Jim Crow era made segregation legal and seemingly right because of laws. The Jim Crow laws reinforced the belief that African-Americans were inferior to whites. Any African-Americans accused of committing a crime could be subject to unjust treatment by law enforcement and even unfair trials in court. One of the most heinous acts of racial profiling was the threat of racist vigilantes. According to the Tuskegee Institute, more than three thousand four hundred African-Americans were lynched from 1880 to 1950. Mexicans and Mexican-Americans were also victim to racial profiling since the days of the annexation of Texas from Mexico. In 1845 the Texas Rangers were formed and served as the nations first statewide police organization. According to the University of Texas’ del Carmen, the Texas Rangers committed many â€Å"brutal acts against Comanche tribes and thousands of Mexicans†. Many Mexican-Americans throughout the southwest United States and throughout most of Texas suffered from the same kind of racial segregation as African-Americans. In the 1930’s nearly 2 million Mexican-Americans were forced and aggressively pressured to leave the United States. In the late 19th century Federal immigration laws portrayed racial profiling by the national government. In 1875 one of the first Federal Immigration laws banned the entry of the country to many undesired Asian immigrants brought to the United States for forced labor and prostitution. In 1882 the Chinese Exclusion Act banned all immigration of Chinese laborers. Decades later the United States government put in action literacy tests to gain citizenship that were swayed to only help Europeans and not Asians or Latinos. On February 19th 1942 one of the most well known acts of racial profiling was committed. Under an executive order of president Franklin D. Roosevelt, the president ordered the internment of over 110,000 people mostly of Japanese descent following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. The federal government believed that anyone of Japanese descent could be a threat to national security. Hundreds of thousands of innocent honest American citizens were forced into internment baffles me, considering that the government would never do that to White German-American citizens even though the main enemy of World War 2 was Germany. In the late 20th century racial and ethnic profiling became an important issue in the public eye. The African-American civil rights movement embodied the desire of African-Americans to be treated equally socially and under the treatment of law. After the Civil Rights movements, African-Americans and other minorities were being treated more fairly but still falling victim to racial profiling. The FBI and DEA perfected the â€Å"formal† art of racial profiling in the 1970’s. The DEA created a â€Å"profile† for supposed drug traffickers, which targeted African-Americans and people of Hispanic descent. The list of characteristics gave agents the right to randomly stop and search people matching the profile; legal racial profiling. In 1989 the Supreme Court granted permission to use those characteristics as probable cause to stop and search someone. Throughout the 1990’s racial profiling was an epidemic with law enforcement stops in the United States. Statistics show that African-Americans were the great majority of police drug stops. In Maryland during 1995, a man with the last name Wilkins filed a lawsuit against law enforcement to uncover hard evidence that African-Americans were being unfairly profiled. After a thorough investigation of the Maryland law enforcement, a state police â€Å"Criminal Intelligence Report† showed that there was a explicit profile for targeting African-Americans. The investigation actually uncovered that African-Americans were 72 percent of the stops made in the state. After the terrorist attacks of September 11th 2001 there was a new group in the United States being racially profiled, Middle Easterners and Muslims. The federal government, as well as the many of the American public became suspicious of anyone of Middle Eastern descent or anyone who practiced the Muslim religion. Although the vast majority of Muslims are peaceful, many people as well as law enforcement began to racially profile them as â€Å"terrorist†. Even African-Americans and Latinos began to scrutinize innocent Middle Easterners. Although President George W. Bush promised to help end racial profiling because it was unconstitutional, following 9/11 the law enforcement began to profile even more than ever. The government focused on Arab Nationals and anyone who could possible have links to the terrorist group Al Qaeda. Immigration Authorities began rounding up hundreds of Middle Easterners for thorough questioning. Although they denied it, Airport screeners began giving special attention to anyone who appeared to be of Middle Eastern or Arabic descent. In 2003 the Bush administration issued a Racial Profiling guideline that stated racial profiling is okay as long as it is related to National Security. In 2008 the Barrack Obama administration and critics of racial profiling began to push for more legislation to prevent racial profiling. Being the first African-American President, it seemed as if times were changing as far as racial profiling stands in the United States. In 2009 the murder of African-American teenager Trayvon Martin griped the nation. The murder was a pure case of racial profiling by a vigilante in a predominantly white neighborhood. Martin’s murder George Zimmerman, a former neighborhood watchman was suspicious of Martin walking around his neighbor hood one evening. Zimmerman armed with his handgun, began stalking Martin and eventually confronted Martin, even though police dispatchers told Zimmerman not to. On Zimmerman’s 911 call he used racial slurs and clearly profiled Martin as a criminal because he was African-American. Eventually Zimmerman confronted Martin, the two got into a scuffle, and Zimmerman shot and killed the unarmed teen. After years of trial, the jury eventually acquitted Zimmerman of the murder charge claiming it was â€Å"self defense† even though Law enforcement told Zimmerman to not follow Martin and Zimmerman did anyways. The Trayvon martin murder is still a current issue that has the nation divided. After doing extensive research on the topic of Racial Profiling in the United States I have learned a lot about how far back and diverse racial profiling is. I believe that there will always be racial profiling as long as there are multiple races living in one country. Racial Profiling is simply human nature and cannot be undone by making laws or legislation. People subconsciously profile individuals based on their individual history and knowledge. People say â€Å"I don’t see color† but the fact of the matter is, everyone sees color. Even the victims of racial profiling are guilty of racially profiling others; whether or not they say it out loud people still think it. The only thing people can do is try there best to not act upon their assumptions of others based on race, and try their best to treat everyone equally regardless of what you may think initially. Its like the old saying, â€Å"Don’t Judge a book by its cover†.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee - Interpretation :: Free Essay Writer

Interpretation of To Kill a Mockingbird To Kill a Mockingbird portrays life and the role of racism in the 1930’s. A reader may not interpret several aspects in and of the book through just the plain text. Boo Radley, Atticus, and the title represent three such things. Not really disclosed to the reader until the end of the book, Arthur "Boo" Radley plays an important role in the development of both Scout and Jem. In the beginning of the story, Jem, Scout, and Dill fabricate horror stories about Boo. They find Boo as a character of their amusement, and one who has no feelings whatsoever. They tried to get a peep at him, just to see what Boo looked like. Scout connects Boo with the Mockingbird. Mrs. Maudie defines a mockingbird as one who "†¦don’t do one thing but make music for us to enjoy. They don’t eat up people’s gardens, don’t nest in corncribs, they don’t do one thing but sing their hearts out for us" (94). Boo is exactly that. Boo is the person who put a blanket around Scout and Jem when it was cold. Boo was the one putting "gifts" in the tree. Boo even sewed up Jem’s pants that tore on Dill’s last night. Boo was the one who saved their lives. On the contrary to Scout’s primary belief, Boo never harms anyone. Scout also realizes that she wrongfully treated Boo when she thinks about the gifts in the tree. Sh e never gave anything back to Boo, except love at the end. When Scout escorts Arthur home and stands on his front porch, she sees the same street she saw, just from an entirely different perspective. Scout learns what a Mockingbird is, and who represents one. Arthur Radley not only plays an important role in developing Scout and Jem, but helps in developing the novel. Boo can be divided into three stages. Primitively, Boo is Scout’s worst nightmare. However, the author hints at Boo actually existing as a nice person when he places things in the tree. The secondary stage is when Mrs. Maudie’s house burned to the ground. As Scout and Jem were standing near Boo’s house, it must have been rather cold. So, Boo places a warm and snug blanket around Scout and Jem, to keep them warm. To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee - Interpretation :: Free Essay Writer Interpretation of To Kill a Mockingbird To Kill a Mockingbird portrays life and the role of racism in the 1930’s. A reader may not interpret several aspects in and of the book through just the plain text. Boo Radley, Atticus, and the title represent three such things. Not really disclosed to the reader until the end of the book, Arthur "Boo" Radley plays an important role in the development of both Scout and Jem. In the beginning of the story, Jem, Scout, and Dill fabricate horror stories about Boo. They find Boo as a character of their amusement, and one who has no feelings whatsoever. They tried to get a peep at him, just to see what Boo looked like. Scout connects Boo with the Mockingbird. Mrs. Maudie defines a mockingbird as one who "†¦don’t do one thing but make music for us to enjoy. They don’t eat up people’s gardens, don’t nest in corncribs, they don’t do one thing but sing their hearts out for us" (94). Boo is exactly that. Boo is the person who put a blanket around Scout and Jem when it was cold. Boo was the one putting "gifts" in the tree. Boo even sewed up Jem’s pants that tore on Dill’s last night. Boo was the one who saved their lives. On the contrary to Scout’s primary belief, Boo never harms anyone. Scout also realizes that she wrongfully treated Boo when she thinks about the gifts in the tree. Sh e never gave anything back to Boo, except love at the end. When Scout escorts Arthur home and stands on his front porch, she sees the same street she saw, just from an entirely different perspective. Scout learns what a Mockingbird is, and who represents one. Arthur Radley not only plays an important role in developing Scout and Jem, but helps in developing the novel. Boo can be divided into three stages. Primitively, Boo is Scout’s worst nightmare. However, the author hints at Boo actually existing as a nice person when he places things in the tree. The secondary stage is when Mrs. Maudie’s house burned to the ground. As Scout and Jem were standing near Boo’s house, it must have been rather cold. So, Boo places a warm and snug blanket around Scout and Jem, to keep them warm.

Monday, January 13, 2020

The Coldest Winter Ever – Personal Reflection on Winter

Winter Santiago Isn't Just a typical teenager. She Isn't typical at all, she barely ever goes to school, she only goes when she wants something. Her family life Is anything but typical, her father Is a big drug dealer with a lot of money and her mother Isn't even Like a mother to Winter, she's more Like a sister to her. Winter Is very self- absorbed; she only worries about herself, even when her mom got shot In the face Winter gets jealous because she thinks her mother's hogging all the attention.She really only cares about herself. She is very street smart though, after her father goes to prison, her mother becomes a crack head and her sisters go into care, Winter knew how to take care of herself, she knew what to do to survive on the streets without the help of her father. She's done horrible things to survive and live the life she knew, like robbing people and betraying her family. Winter wouldn't make a good best friend at all; I don't even think she would make a good friend.She betrayed all of her friends one way or another, either by hooking up with their man because he had what she needed, or betraying Simons when she got arrested because she was telling for Winter, Simons was ready to have her baby and even though she said no, Winter persisted that she go and steal for her, because she wanted something, she didn't care that Simons was having a baby, if anything she used it against her saying she would need the money that she's making stealing, for the baby, in the end Simons lost the baby, and in my opinion a lot of the blame should be on Winter.She may be a fun person to be around and go out with because she does know how to have fun, but I would never want her as a friend because she's not loyal and she is untrustworthy.She does have a of of maturing to do though, so I really shouldn't judge too harshly, you can tell by the end of the book, when she Is In prison, and goes to her mother's funeral, she's a different person, her views on life are totally different, and when she sees her younger sister doing the same things she was doing she wants to stop her and tell her everything that she had gone through, but she held back knowing that it would only make her sister angry and make Winter look Jealous.I think that going to prison changed Winter In the best way, she was no longer the elf-absorbed, conceited â€Å"ghetto-princess† that she was before she had gone to prison, she actually grew up, and matured during her time In. The Coldest Winter Ever – Personal Reflection on Winter Santiago. By Joann Winter Santiago isn't Just a typical teenager. She isn't typical at all, she barely ever goes to school, she only goes when she wants something.Her family life is anything but typical, her father is a big drug dealer with a lot of money and her mother isn't even like a mother to Winter, she's more like a sister to her. Winter is very self- absorbed; she only worries about herself, even when her mom got shot in the face Win ter gets Jealous because she thinks her mother's hogging all the attention. She friend at all; I don't even think she would make a good friend.She betrayed all of her didn't care that Simons was having a baby, if anything she used it against her saying untrustworthy. She does have a of of maturing to do though, so I really shouldn't judge too harshly, you can tell by the end of the book, when she is in prison, and goes I think that going to prison changed Winter in the best way, she was no longer the prison, she actually grew up, and matured during her time in.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Pet Names and Belittlement Henrik Ibsens A Dolls House

In a dolls house, Ibsen has combined several characters with diverse personal qualities and used them to develop the story line as well as bring to life the major themes and issues that the plot is meant to address. Primarily there are two types of characters who can be categorized as static and dynamic, the static characters remain the same form the start to the end of a story and despite the events taking place around them, and they do not change their perception or altitudes. These types of characters are often â€Å"punished† for their inflexibility especially when there are antagonists. In A doll’s house, Nora’s husband Torvald is depicted as such, he treats Nora like she is a child and proves incapable of understanding the depth of her†¦show more content†¦Nevertheless, it is evident she though too highly of him since from his reaction at the discovery of her crimes he clearly would be more likely to persecute rather than try to save her (Templeton 136). Ibsen uses dramatic irony in order to guide ether audience into seeing the characters as they really are without their knowledge of some of the facts so that when all is revealed, the audience can make a judgment based on how the character behaves. Krogstad who is a low level worker at the bank where Torvald works is aware of the her actions and she even has evidence of her transactions, when he realizes that Torvald who is his superior intends to fire him, he tries to blackmail Nora into using her influence over her husband to prevent his dismissal. Nora agrees to try but Torvald does not take her seriously as usual and insists of firing him, she realizes that Krogstad would probably reveal her secret and this greatly traumatizes her. Krogstad presses her further after the dismissal and demands that she not only has her husband reinstate but promote him as well. However, Torvald is adamant and lashes out at her for pursuing the matter while Krogstad put her in an impossible situation by making demands that she had no power to fulfill. She attempts make Krogstad toShow MoreRelatedThe hero we all wish we could be1600 Words   |  7 Pageslate eighteen hundreds the roles of genders were specific. Men were to work and provide for his family. While woman were to stay home and care for their household, children, and ultimately to satisfy their husbands desires. In the play A Doll House by Henrik Ibsen we see the character of Nora Helmer escape from this age’s common gender role by leaving her husband and children behind in search for her own happiness. While many could criticize Nora’s abandonment of her children and husband a cowardly